EXISTING SOLID WASTE GENERATION AND STRENGHT IN KARACHI

Available information regarding manpower and Distbins (Table-1)

S.No.

TOWNS

MANPOWER

NUMBER OF DUSTBINS

1.

Kaemari

449

76

2.

SITE

200

3.

Baldia

292

586

4.

Orangi

51

187

5.

Lyari

173

210

6.

Saddar

155

108

7.

Jamshed

866

230

8.

Gulshan-e-Iqbal

9.

Shah Faisal

9

10.

Landhi

89

11.

Korangi

12.

North Nazimabad

194

13.

New Karachi

470

874

14.

Gulberg

25

24

15.

Liaquatabad

110

16.

Malir

44

17.

Bin Qasim

11

18.

Gadap

272

 

TOTAL

4170

4085


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

GARBAGE GENERATION

 

PART I: EXISTING SITUATION

 

 

COMPOSITION OF WASTE

The types of wastes or garbage generated are: household, commercial, institutional and street sweepings. Sanitary workers sweep streets and provide a primary waste collection service.

 

Major markets where organic waste is generated are: Vegetable market: 100 tones per day (TPD) and Empress market: 70 TPD

High-income localities generate garbage:

 

Organic Waste:

60%

Garden Waste:

12%

Recyclable

8%

Low-income localities generate garbage: Garden Waste: maximum  5% Organic Waste:     40%

The composition of garbage generated in Karachi is given in the Table 1 below.

Recyclable:               15%

 

Table 1: Composition of garbage generated in Karachi.

Components of solid waste

%

Total Quantity Tons/day

Recoverable Tons/day

Rate Rs / Ton

Amount Rs (mil)

/ day

Amount Rs mil/yr

Paper Metal Plastic Bone Glass Textile Bio Waste Others

6.00

0.30

6.00

2.00

0.70

6.50

30.00

50.00

480

24

450

160

56

360

2400

4040

240

12

240

100

28

0

0

0

2000

24000

15000

6000

1000

0

0

0

0.48

0.288

3.60

0.60

0.028

0

0

0

175.2

105.12

1314.00

219.00

10.22

0

0

0

Total

99.50

8000

520

11000

4996

1823.5

 

 

In addition to the above-mentioned amount, another few millions can be added from the sale of bones, leather, rubber, etc and composing of Bio-waste

 

Generation rateper person


According to survey carried out in 1005: Waste generation rate: 300 grams/person/day

 

At another place the rate is given as: 0.5 kg / capita / day

 

It is also given that garbage generation ranges from 0.2 to 18 kg / capita / day in various Town Municipalities (TMAs). This variation in generation rates data poses an anomalous situation.

Also given is:

300 grams                 in document

 

Another approach is to have garbage generation rate per capita as:

Generation rate, g/person/day for: (1) Average and (2) low-mid-high income groups Then population has to be found for: (1) low-mid-high income groups and (2) total population

 

 

Population Data

 

The population data of Karachi is as given in Table 2 below. Also population figures from various sources are given.

1                    14 million

2                    15.12 million                                     ECIL, KMP team, 2006

3                    15 million                                           Jawed K, 2005

Population                                                    14 million

Annual Population growth rate                 4.5 %

 

Table 2 tentative Population Projections of Towns of Karachi Scenario – B (Provincial)

 

S.No.

 

Towns

 

Population in 1998

Unaccounted/ Adjusted (7%)

Adjusted Population of 1998

Population Projection for 2005 at 5.00% AAGR.

1

Keamari

384,378

26,906

411,284

583,640

2

SITE

467,560

32,729

500,289

709,944

3

Baldia

406,165

28,432

434,597

616,722

4

Orangi

723,694

50,659

774,353

1,098,859

5

Lyari

607,992

42,559

650,551

923,176

6

Saddar

607,992

43,131

659,282

935,565

7

Jamshed

733,821

51,367

785,188

1,114,235

8

Gulshan-e-Iqbal

625,230

43,766

668,996

949,351

9

Shah Faisal

355,823

23,508

359,331

509,914

10

Landhi

666,748

46,672

713,420

1,012,392

11

Korangi

546,504

38,255

584,759

829,813

12

North Nazimabad

496,194

34,734

530,928

753,422

13

North Karachi

684,183

47,893

732,076

1,038,865

14

Gulberg

453,490

31,744

485,234

688,580

15

Liaquatabad

649,091

45,436

694,527

985,581

16

Malir

398,289

27,880

426,169

604,763

17

Bin Qasim

316,684

22,168

338,852

480,854


 

18

Gadap

289,564

20,269

309,833

439,675

19

Cantonment

306,165

21,432

427,597

464,882

20

Defence

250,000

17,500

267,500

379,601

TOTAL (IN MILLION)

9.96

0.70

10.65

15.12

 

Garbage generation rate – tons/day and tons/year

 

Total household waste generated:           4500 TPD Total City waste generated:                                         7259 TPD

Total city lifting capacity:                             1880 TPD/450 vehicle/ 3 trips Amount of Sold Waste Generated, (Present)             9000 tons/day

Number of Towns                                                    18

Number of UCs                                                        178

Average Solid Waste Generation / Town            400 tons/day Average Sold Waste Generation / UC                                           40 tons / day Solid Waste generation excluding industrial and Biological SW Based on 6113 TPD

6113 TPD

 

Generated / lifted

SW Generated

=

6113 TPD

6113 / 5057 TPD

SW lifted

=

5157 TPD

8000 TPD

City Household Waste

=

4500 TPD

7250 TPD

 

 

 

2.70 TPD

 

 

 

Table-3: Solid waste generation in Karachi2006 at household level

 

S. No.

 

Town

 

Garbage Generation per day in Tons

 

Actual Lifting per day / ton

 

Backlog per day

1

Keamari

220

180

40

2

SITE

167

153

14

3

Baldia

400

302

99

4

Orangi

346

240

106

5

Lyari

350

300

50

6

Saddar

500

454

46

7

Jamshed

330

525

78

8

Gulshan-e-Iqbal

400

318

82

9

Shah Faisal

105

105

10

Landhi

370

324

46

11

Korangi

360

272

88

12

North Nazimabad

375

336

39

13

North Karachi

365

280

85

14

Gulberg

330

330

0

15

Liaquatabad

800

594

206

16

Malir

280

270

10

17

Bin Qasim

65

27

38

18

Gadap

350

320

30

 

TOTAL

6113

5057

1057


Source: SWM CDGK

 

Waste source-reduction and segregation

No information is available on this subject. It is unlikely that this activity is done here as a normal practice by wide section of the population in Karachi.

There are three types of wastes: domestic, industrial and Hospital commercial Garden wastes.

 

Waste primarily falls into two categories: hazardous waste and non-hazardous waste (for municipal solid waste MSW). Waste that does not fall into these two categories is called special or other waste.

 

The Waste Hierarchy

Waste hierarchy means classification, according to the facet of ‘desirability’, of waste management strategies. The strategies could be to reduce waste or to reuse recovery waste or inaheration to recycle waste, the ‘3 Rs’ of waste management. Another recent strategy is to ‘Re-think’ or review the present system for an improved system. Whatever the classification, the main and sole object of waste management is to treat and dispose waste completely or minimize if from the environment, to safeguard the health of the community.

 

Concurrently, the supplementary object is to extract maximum benefits from the waste by turning it in to a useful product.

 

COMPOSITION OF WASTE

In future, there will be increasing quantities of plastic, non-disposal waste and toxic waste in our households, which will require new and much more expensive ways of disposal. Waste generation industries, i.e. industries that make non-degradable products are a problem of SWM.

 

Waste type-quality: Use of urban waste could decline due to the contamination in it, particularly of plastics. Research to be conducted on the quality of waste as soil amendment, generation and on recovery and treatment of solid waste.

 

Take the case of UK.

 

The composition of house waste (8% of total) is given in the figure below, which shows: Kitchen waste 17%, garden waste 21%, paper waste 18%, i.e., 56% of total.

 

Types of wastes

The various types of wastes, which are generated, are: ‘Municipal waste’ includes: household waste, street litter, municipal parks and gardens waste, offices waste and some commercial and industrial wastes. The originators, to separate recyclable or compositing’ wastes, sometimes sort out municipal waste. The remaining waste, called ‘residual waste’, is collected in special containers, provided by the local authority.


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TableHousehold waste

S.No.

Type of waste

Percent

1

Kitchen waste

17%

2

Soil and other organics

3%

3

Fines

3%

4

Paper and board

18%

5

Dense plastic

4%

6

Plastic film

3%

7

Textiles

3%

8

Glass

7%

9

Wood

5%

10

Nappies

2%

11

Misc. non-combustibles

5%

12

Metal packaging

3%

13

Scrap metal /white goods

5%

14

Garden waste

21%

15

Other combusibles

1%


 

 

 

 

 

B. Population

The population projections are as follows:

 

 

EXISTING AND TENTATIVE POPULATION PROJECTION FOR THE TOWNS OF KARACHI FOR THE YEAR 2005, 2010, 2015 & 2020

(SCENARIOD)

 

Declining Average Annual Growth Rate from 5.0% to 3.5%               (Table-4)

 

S.No.

 

Towns

Population Projection for 2005 at

5.00% AAGR.

Population Projection for 2010 at 4.5% AAGR.

Population Projection for 2015 at

4.5% AAGR.

Population Projection for 2020 at 3.50% AAGR

1

Keamari

583,640

730,905

892,730

1,063,461

2

SITE

709,944

889,079

1,085,923

1,293,602

3

Baldia

616,722

772,336

943,333

1,123,742

4

Orangi

1,098,859

1,376,126

1,680,805

2,002,252

5

Lyari

923,176

1,156,114

1,412,081

1,682,136

6

Saddar

935,565

1,171,630

1,431,032

1,704,712

7

Jamshed

1,114,235

1,395,382

1,704,323

2,030,268

8

Gulshan-e-Iqbal

949,351

1,188,893

1,452,117

1,729,829

9

Shah Faisal

509,914

638,578

779,961

929,126

10

Landhi

1,012,392

1,267,840

1,548,544

1,844,697

11

Korangi

829,813

1,039,193

1,269,273

1,512,017

12

North Nazimabad

753,422

943,528

1,152,428

1,372,826

13

North Karachi

1,038,865

1,300,995

1,589,038

1,892,936

14

Gulberg

688,580

862,324

1,053,245

1,254,674

15

Liaquatabad

985,581

1,234,265

1,507,535

1,795,845

16

Malir

604,763

757,358

925,039

1,101,949

17

Bin Qasim

480,854

602,184

735,509

876,173

18

Gadap

439,675

550,614

672,521

801,138

19

Cantonment

464,882

582,183

711,079

847,071

20

Defence

379,601

475,382

580,633

691,766

TOTAL (IN MILLION)

15.12

18.93

23.13

27.55

 

 

C.                Waste generation rates   GPD/person, TPD/zone & TPY/zone

Waste type Quantity: Waste generation is related with consumption and consumption is related with income. Rural consumers consume less so lesser waste is generated than urban consumers.

Composition of solid waste and generation is shown in this report.

Solid Waste generation is calculated on the basis of population projection.

 

1.      Declining Average Annual growth rate scenario – D


2.      Estimate gross population capacity

3.      combination of annual growth rate and gross population capacity for the new towns.

 

 

Amount of waste

Solid Waste Management and Disposal has been design on the basis of population projection optionII AS shown in this report however the calculation are shown of all the three options for comparison purpose.

 

In advance countries the amount of waste generated is enormous. We cannot emulate them because of our backwardness. But, it is useful to know a bit about how their waste is dealt with. We could try to establish basic systems, as in advance countries, for our future generations to come.

 

Take the case of UK. ‘It is estimated that nearly 36 million tones / yr of municipal waste was generated in the UK in 2002/03. A total of 30 million tones/yr of this waste was collected from households. That’s about 500 kg/yr or half a tonne of household waste per person! (2003)’. It is important to note that in Karachi 200 kg per year of solid waste can not be dealt.


 

 

 

 

 

Garbage collection

 

PART I EXISTING SITUATION

 

The population of Karachi is 15.15 million in 2005 and it has an area of 425,529 acres. The number of agencies involved with solid waste management (SWM) are a total of 210, the break up being as follows:

 

 

Town Municipal Administration (TMA): 18 Union Councils (UCs): 178

City District Government Karachi (CDGK): 1 Cantonment Boards: 11

Karachi Port Trust: 1 Pakistan Steel Mills: 1 Port Qasim: 1

Sindh Industrial Trading Estate: 1 Export Processing Zone: 1

A.                 Garbage collection services

 

In Karachi, in 18 towns, 2006:

(refer Table 2)

estimated garbage collected: 5057 TPD (tons per day) estimated garbage not collected: 1057 TPD

      Annual Expenditure            Rs 800 million

      Lifting Capacity                    50% In each Town and UC,

B.                Garbage collectionprimary collection

 

One stage collection

 

Primary stage collection of garbage is from house hold to dust bin sites, (‘kachra kundi’).

This is done in the following ways:


Garbage is collected in stages, which ultimately lead to its collection at one point for a fixed zone. From this point, garbage is disposed to landfill sites. But this may not be case for all cities. For instance, in Karachi, the garbage collection system is as follows:

Stage 1: From house resident travels to dispose garbage to dust bins

Stage 2: From dust bins municipality vehicles dispose of garbage to landfill sites OR to unofficial dumping ground (Primary transportation, 2-3 trips a day, long trips)

 

This is the most uneconomical way of SWM because the distance to landfill site is long and several vehicles have to make this long trips several times a day. Considering the large amount of waste and the cost of fuel and O&M, not all waste is disposed of.

 

 

Table 2: Details of garbage collection

The following problems arise in Karachi in primary collection: Poor attendance of sanitary workers.

Gradual decrease in number of dust bins, as a large number of garbage containers

(Katchra Kundi) are in the workshop for repairs.

 

Haphazard accumulation of garbage on streets, in open spaces and in drains.

 

Primary stage collection, from house hold to dust bin sites, involves the following problems:

 

It may be mentioned that the uncollected waste usually finds it way in sewers, is eaten by the cattle, or left to rot in the open, or burnt on roadsides. These are harmful practices.

Two stage collection Garbage collection-record

Garbage collection equipment Vehicles    550

 

Garbage collection manpower Staff     15188

 

Poor attendance of sanitary workers. Privatized transport system

 

Benefits of privatization:

 

Regarding a successful contract in Shah Faisal Town, the contractor has performed well and lifted 100% garbage. He used less than 50% of TMA’s garbage vehicles, which were rented to him. He ensured a minimum of three trips daily by each vehicle


to the landfill. There was no intervention of labor unions. Prompt redresses of public complaints were undertaken.

 

 

 

Short Comings:

 

The tonnage rate of Rs 269 /ton is on the higher side as compared to some of the other TMAs. The contractor dumped garbage at undesignated and un-monitored landfill sites.

 

TMA, Gulshan-e-Iqbal awarded a contract in 2006 for transportation of garbage from a temporary garbage transfer station to landfill site. This contract is still in force.


 

 

 

 

 

HOSPITAL WASTE MANAGEMENT

 

 

For hospitals:

Generation rate is : 3 to 4 kg/bed/day in document.

 

900 beds at one place it is given 900. At another place, total beds = 4367 in 143 hospitals and 1094 HCUs = 1237. Which is correct? Needs investigation.

 

Hospital waste:

The handling of hospital waste, or ‘Bio-Medical Waste;, has assumed importance because of spreading such dangerous disease as AIDS. On way to manage this important issue is to make the hospital personnel aware of the dangers and the need for seriously taking the management of this waste for safe handling and disposal. Internet could be used very effectively for this purpose. A web site could be established to disseminate information for the doctors and hospital staff to read it at any time at their convenience.

 

 

2.       HOSPITAL WASTE

Ref. CDGK SWM Expert, “Presentation on Karachi’s solid waste system”, 2006.

Total no. of hospitals in Karachi               200

Total no. of beds                                          900

Waste generation rate of hospital             3-4 kg/bed/day Approximately generation of hospital waste                     2700 kg/day Hazardous waste component                                                                540 kg/day

Non hazardous waste component                       2160 kg/day Health care units (HCU) identified by TMAs                                      1379

 

The table-1 below gives the details of HCUs.

Only 140 HCU dispose off their waste through incineration plants run by City Government (CG). The remaining HCU dispose off their waste along with the municipal waste. This poses a health hazard.

 

The reasons of health hazards are –a- Non-registration of HCUs either with Health Department Government of Sindh or with City Govt. and –b- Non-presence of Environment Protection Agency of Sindh at grassroot level.

 

Incinerators

The CD installed two incineration plants at Mewa Shah in 1996. Each has a capacity of 1000 kg/hour. Incineration take place at 800 ˚C in 10 minutes. At present 140 hospitals/clinics are incinerating their waste through these incinerators.


A contractor, M/s Abaseen International, operates both the plants for 2 years. Their responsibilities include collection of waste from hospital and clinics, transport and incinerate the waste, operate and maintain the plants. They are running only at 12- 15% capacity due to non-registration of all HCUs.

 

Service charges for incineration and transportation are collected from registered HCUs and deposited in the CG account. Services charges component of 22.2% is retained by CG and the balance is paid to the contractor. The table-2 below gives the services charges rates.

 

Table-1: HCU details in Karachi Towns2006

S.No.

Towns

No. of HCU (3)

No. of Hospitals (4)

No. of Beds

Total 3&4

1

Keamari

184

27

0

211

3

Baldia

0

4

0

4

4

Orangi

211

9

167

220

7

Jamshed

256

26

564

282

10

Landhi

14

0

10

14

11

Korangi

71

10

540

81

13

North Karachi

54

15

260

69

14

Gulberg

66

20

507

86

15

Liaquatabad

10

4

850

14

16

Malir

110

17

502

127

17

Bin Qasim

39

01

50

40

18

Gadap

79

10

917

89

TOTAL

1094

143

4367

1237

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